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M . Fundamentalism

"A movement in American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism and that stresses the infallibility of the Bible not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record, holding as essential to Christian faith belief in such doctrines as the creation of the world, the virgin birth, physical resurrection, atonement by the sacrificial death of Christ, and the Second Coming;" "strict adherance to any set of basic ideas or principles." In the Islamic and Jewish religions, there are fundamentalism movements which bear to those religions a similar thrust to fundamentalism in American Christianity. People who consider themselves to be "civilized," and who are in no way part of any such fundamentalist movement, nearly always will see such movements as a renunciation of civilization in favor of a return to the simpler values of an earlier time. Spengler saw fundamentalism as a necessary element of the end times of Civilization, where the Imperial rule would be accompanied by a Second Religiousness in the masses. It would appear that the mass of people, who see their Civilization crumbling around them, yearn for a return of the "better times" which they associate with the "old values" of their "old time religion," and thus adopt fundamentalism as a prescription for the restoration of those longed-for "better times."


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